The hormone insulin is one of the most important in the human body. Without it, the normal functioning of numerous systems is impossible. First of all, it helps to determine the level of sugar in the blood of a person and, if necessary, adjust it.
But sometimes even with normal sugar, insulin is significantly elevated. The reasons why this happens, as evidenced by a high indicator of sugar or insulin in the blood, than it threatens - is lower.
Insulin and its meaning
As it was said, without insulin, no process in the human body normally proceeds. He is actively involved in the breakdown of proteins and fats. But, of course, the main function is blood glucose monitoring. If the sugar level is disturbed, energy metabolism will not proceed in the body in a normal ratio.
Insulin in a healthy, well-functioning body is contained in such quantities:
- In children - from 3.0 to 20 ICU / ml;
- In adults, from 3.0 to 25 ICU / ml.
In the elderly, whose age has exceeded 60-65 years, insulin can be contained in an amount of up to 35 μED / ml. All this is normal performance. If the top marks are exceeded, it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible - he will establish the reasons and explain why insulin is abnormally elevated.
Of particular concern should be the situation when the hormone is elevated, and sugar remains normal. For ease of monitoring the level of insulin and glucose at home, the meter must always be on hand.
It is necessary to make measurements of sugar several times a day - preferably at least 5, in order to get the clearest picture.
But if there is no such possibility, then sugar should be checked at least twice a day: in the morning after awakening, and in the evening, before going to bed.
Why insulin is high - causes
If insulin is elevated, it always indicates a serious malfunction in the body, there is something wrong with health. First of all, we can talk about the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus - it is in this form of the disease that such characteristics are characteristic.
Often an elevated hormone level indicates a so-called Cushing's disease. When acromegaly in parallel there is a high level of growth hormone in the blood. Sugar at the same time remains normal.
Increased insulin is one of the signs of serious liver problems. Often, a similar symptom signals the presence of insulinoma - a tumor that actively produces this hormone.
Dystrophic myotonia, a serious neuromuscular disease, is another possible cause of an increase in the level of the hormone insulin. It is also possible to suspect the initial stage of obesity and a decrease in the sensitivity of tissue cells to the hormone and carbohydrates derived from it.
Whatever the reasons for the sudden increase in insulin, a thorough, comprehensive examination of the patient is necessary.
Important: Often the hormone of the pancreas is elevated in women during the period of gestation. It is believed that since the body moves to a new physiological state, such changes are completely normal. But, nevertheless, it is recommended to monitor their health, nutrition and weight.
It is impossible to ignore the fact that a change in the level of hormones in the female body is often associated with various neoplasms - in particular, polycystic ovary or ovaries can develop. A characteristic symptom in this case is the increased and abrupt deposition of fat in the crease in the abdomen.
All of the above diseases begin to develop against the background of increasing insulin levels in the body. But there are pathologies that are caused on the contrary, a decrease or degradation of insulin or sugar in the blood. What is to be feared in this case?
What is the risk of low insulin levels?
If there is a sharp decrease in insulin, measures should be taken immediately, as this may be a signal of such phenomena and pathologies:
- Type 1 diabetes;
- Juvenile diabetes;
- Diabetic coma;
- Hypopituitarism is a disease associated with pituitary dysfunction.
If the patient has been subjected to severe physical exertion and active sports for a long time, the level of insulin can also drop significantly. Naturally, in any case, you should always pay special attention to the state of the pancreas and the indicators of sugar - they can be higher than normal with low insulin.
Determining the level of insulin plays a large role for those patients who have been diagnosed recently, have not yet accurately determined the type of disease and have not chosen a treatment strategy. From the obtained indicators will depend on the selected program, which the diabetic will have to adhere to the rest of his life.
How to determine hormone levels by well-being
It is very important to independently control the level of insulin and sugar. It is not as difficult to do as it may seem, even in the absence of a blood glucose meter and the ability to pass laboratory tests - it is enough to follow the signs that the body itself sends.
Even minor fluctuations in the ratio of the hormone immediately affect the amount of glucose. All this inevitably affects the patient's well-being.
If the insulin index deviates from the allowable elevation, is increased or decreased, it can be determined by the following features:
- A feeling of thirst that is very difficult to quench;
- Itchy skin;
- Increased urination to urinate;
- Fast fatiguability.
If the level of the hormone remains elevated for a long time, prolonged healing of even the most minor injuries, scratches and bruises is noted. That is why any injuries and surgeries are extremely undesirable for all diabetics.
The process of tissue regeneration will be very slow and painful, wounds are prone to inflammation and suppuration. For the same reason, varicose veins, trophic ulcers often lead to gangrene. In advanced cases, it threatens with limb amputation.
If the ratio of insulin increases dramatically, blood sugar usually drops immediately. This is indicated by the following symptoms:
- Sudden bouts of hunger.
- Tachycardia, rapid pulse.
- Great trembling throughout the body.
- Increased sweating.
- A state close to fainting is also sudden.
All these manifestations suggest that the patient needs urgent medical care;
What threatens to increase the ratio of insulin
An increase in the ratio of insulin in the blood is dangerous not only for those who suffer from type 2 diabetes, but also for every healthy person. This phenomenon inevitably leads to serious illness of various internal organs, violations of their functioning.
First of all, a large amount of insulin in the body affects the elasticity of the walls of blood vessels and arteries. And it threatens the development of dangerous hypertension. Accordingly, if the vascular permeability worsens, the risk of various disorders of the cardiovascular system increases.
The carotid artery also suffers - its cells and walls begin to thicken and thicken, and this leads to a deterioration in the blood supply to the brain. In older patients, this phenomenon is manifested by impairment of memory and clarity of thinking, slowness of reactions, and other functional disorders.
The worst thing that an elevated ratio of insulin can lead to is the formation of diabetes mellitus of the first type. This form of the disease is fraught with pathological changes in almost all human systems and organs. In addition, the patient will not be able to do without a single day without regular injections of insulin.
Recommendation: if there is a suspicion that the ratio of hormone and sugar in the blood deviates from the norm, it is necessary to pass the appropriate tests as soon as possible.
The sooner measures are taken, if the deviations are confirmed, the greater the chance of avoiding serious complications. The slightest changes can not be ignored, they must be investigated in time and mandatory treatment is carried out.
These activities are very important in cases where changes in insulin levels are very significant, while sugar remains at a normal level. Such a phenomenon is very dangerous, the patient’s condition cannot be considered stable, he needs medical assistance.
As a conclusion, it can be said that controlling the level of insulin in the body is just as important as the level of sugar. If all the above rules and recommendations are observed, it is possible to maintain the functioning of vital organs at a high level and to prevent the formation of their pathological diseases in a timely manner.